||7 Apr 97 11:37 – Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves
In an altostratus cloud over the ARM CART site in Oklahoma. Top panel shows
reflectivity in dBZ units; bottom shows vertical velocity in m/s. NOAA/K cloud radar data.
||29 Feb 97 00:00 – Cumulus and Stratus
The Millimeter Cloud Profiling Radar,
deployed in Barrow, Alaska, the tropical western Pacific and Kansas, reveals the fine
internal structure of cumulus and stratus layers. The system has been deployed
as part of many experiments including EPIC, SHEBA, and JASMINE.
||2 AUG 94 5:56 – Mammatus
For more information on this case, see the article by Martner,B.E., 1995: Doppler radar
observations of mammatus. Monthly Weather Review, 123, 3115-3121.
||20 JUL 94 22:40 – Cummuli, virga, and boundary layer insects
For more information on this case, see the article by Martner, B.E., A.S. Frisch, and R.A. Banta, 1995: Diurnal evolution of
boundary layer turbulence over a boreal forest as observed by Doppler radar. Preprints, 27th
Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, CO, 485-487.
||6 MAR 91 6:02 – Kelvin-Helmholtz Billow Waves
For more information on this case, see article by Martner, B.E., and F.M. Ralph, 1993: Breaking
Kelvin Helmholtz waves and cloud-top entrainment as revealed by K-band radar. Preprints, 9th
Conf. on Atmospheric and Ocean Waves and Stability, San Antonio, 141-144.
||16 FEB 94 23:43 – Lenticular Wave Cloud
For more information, see back cover and cover caption page of the Preprints volume of the AMS. Conf. on Cloud Physics, Dallas, 1995.
|| 21 JUN 92 11:42 - A cross-section of a micro-cell at sea.
Top: Reflectivity (dBz) Bottom: Doppler velocity (m/s)
|| Cloud Diagram
Time-Height Pattern of Radar Reflectivity
||8 FEB 94 20:39 – Depolarization of radar signatures can distinguish ice crystal
types in clouds.
Depolarization from thick plates (shallow cloud) and grauple (shower). For more information on this case, see article by Reinking et. al., 1995: Further comparison
of experimental and theoretical radar polarization signatures due to ice hydrometeor growth habit. Preprints, 27th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Vail, AMS 47-49.
|| 15 FEB 90 18:33 – Freezing Rain Storm
For more information about this case, see article by Martner, B.E., J.B. Snider, R.J. Zamora, G.P. Byrd,
T.A. Niziol and P.I. Joe, 1993: A remote sensing view of a freezing rain storm. Monthly Weather
Review, 121, 2562-2577.
||Calculated Ice Mass Plot
This is a time-height cross section of ice mass content of one of the
cirrus cases observed in ASTEX. Retrievals were made using the radar-radiometer
technique. The input information for this technique are colocated measurements
by vertically pointed Doppler Ka-band radar and IR radiometer (10-11.4 microns).
||3 APR 1999 – Mountain Wave
These reflectivity (top) and radial velocity (bottom) RHI images were obtained over the
western slope of Mount Washington, NH, with the NOAA/K 35-GHz cloud radar during the Mount
Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP). The 6228-foot mountain
summit is located to the right in these images at an elevation angle of about 15 degrees
and 4 km range; the mountainside blocks out radar data to the right of the line that is
the sloping surface of the mountain. The images show the radar echoes from a stratiform
cloud. Wave patterns clearly visible in the cloud near 1 km AGL are Kelvin-Helmholtz
instability waves caused by shear across a stabily stratified flow boundary. The waves
become more pronounced and begin to break as the westerly flow approaches and is
blocked by the mountain slope. Although the physics is somewhat different, these
cloud waves bear a remarkable resemblance to shoaling ocean waves, which become
increasingly stretched and curl over as they cross shallower water on their approach to the
||25 Sep 1995 – Internal Ocean Waves and Wind Swell
This 18 minute radar image of the ocean surface, taken with the
reveals an internal wave packet against a background
of wind-driven swell. The swell appears as a series of small
stripes which are compressed in this time
scale. The much slower moving interal waves are seen as long
bars which progress down the image, toward the radar.
The normalized radar cross-section (top) is the intensity of
the returned signal, while the doppler
velocity (bottom) indicates the direction and speed of the
scatters with respect to the radar.
||4 MAR 95 4:51 – Mountain-Induced Gravity Wave
||6 MAR 95 5:33 – Mountain-Induced Gravity Wave
This vertical cross section through a winter orographic cloud,
shows a large-amplitude, mountain-induced, gravity wave. The top panel is the
depolarization ratio of the circularly transmitted pulse, and the bottom is reflectivity
or power returned.
||12 MAR 93 00:30 – Wind Sheer
Classic wind sheer visible in the bi-colored velocity "lobes" and fringe of this VAD scan. The "cool" colors indicate velocities toward the radar and "warm" colors indicate velocities away.