Project Leads

Sara Morris

Sara Morris

Sara.Morris@noaa.gov
Phone: 303-497-4453
Christopher Cox

Christopher Cox

Christopher.Cox@noaa.gov
Phone: 303-497-4518
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About this Project

D-ICE
Radiometers being tested on the NOAA Boulder roof
Radiometers being tested on the rooftop of NOAA Boulder prior to the experiment.

August 2017—August 2018  |  Utqiaġvik, Alaska

Measurements of longwave (terrestrial) and shortwave (solar) radiation are fundamental environmental quantities and are regularly observed around the world using broadband radiometers. Because of the sensitivity of these instruments to internal temperature instabilities, there are limitations to using heat as a method for preventing the build-up of ice on the sensor windows. Consequently, substantial amounts of data are lost in regions conducive to frost, rime and snow, such as the polar regions.

The purpose of the D-ICE campaign is to test strategies developed by research institutes and industry for preventing radiometer icing. Specifically, we aim to identify a method to be adopted by the research community that is effective at mitigating ice while also minimizing adverse effects on measurement quality, and to serve the needs of the community best, while also being energy efficient. Following the experience of the contributing institutes, the guiding hypothesis is that ventilation of ambient air alone, if properly applied, is sufficient to maintain ice-free radiometers without increasing measurement uncertainty during icing conditions. Other methods, including applying heat to the housing and/or circulating heated air across the dome as well as manual cleanings by on-site technicians will also be evaluated. The project is being led by the NOAA Physical Sciences Division and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Cold Climates Issues Working Group. The project will be carried out at the NOAA Global Monitoring Division Atmospheric Baseline Observatory in Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska, from August 2017 through summer 2018.

Science Objectives

D-ICE is designed to test proposed solutions together in an extreme environment, not necessarily to solve the icing problem.

Guiding Hypothesis

Ventilation of ambient air alone, if properly applied, is sufficient to maintain ice-free radiometers without increasing measurement uncertainty during icing conditions.

  1. Quantify the impact of icing on mean longwave and shortwave fluxes for a full annual cycle in the Arctic:
      1. Ice-mitigation compared to three controls:
        1. Standard operation of collocated BSRN station
        2. Standard operation of nearby ARM station (< 1km, will also have a camera)
        3. Eppley PSP and PIR in standard VEN DC ventilation, not cleaned manually
  2. Evaluate the effectiveness of the de-icing systems in mitigating ice:
    1. 15-minute resolution visual inspection (~35K x 3 images)
    2. Continuous monitoring of ice presence from Rosemount ice probe (TBD):
      1. Plausible mass/accretion rates to quantify the limit for de-icing designs
  3. Evaluate the influence of the designs on instrument uncertainty
    1. Analyze IR-loss offsets given heated and unheated ventilation

Other Outcomes

  • Concluding that the icing problem is solved, or not
  • Opportunity to observe performance of EKO, Hukseflux, Delta-T, and digital sensors
    • New possibility for UAV (e.g. weight), autonomous (e.g. DIF/GLOBAL w/our tracker), serial logging
  • If (2) and (3) prove promising, identification of a preferred method to be adopted by BSRN for de-icing and associated estimate of power consumption
  • Possibly additional characterization of radiometric uncertainty at low temperatures

Origins

  • The Cold Climate Issues Working Group (CCIWG) of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) recognized three points from workshops that took place in 2012, 2014 and 2016:
    1. Progress is being made on de-icing strategies independently by a number of stakeholders
    2. These independent lines of inquiry were focused mainly on heating/ventilation
    3. BSRN experience is consistent with the hypothesis that ventilation is a viable option
      • DOE-ARM North Slope of Alaska Radiometer Campaign
      • BSRN station reports from Neumayer (AWI, Antarctica), Ny-Ålesond (AWI, Svalbard), Sonnblick (ZAMG, Austrian Alps), Junfaujoch (MeteoSwiss, Swiss Alps)
  • In 2016, C. Cox took over as Chair of the CCIWG. PSD was already working on the icing problem, beginning with R. Albee at Storm Peak Laboratory (2014-2015) and continued by S. Morris (2016)
  • It was decided that PSD would lead a "bake-off" to evaluate already-developed technologies in the Arctic.

Experiment

image showing some of the radiometers: 20 shortwave, 5 longwave (3 direct are not shown)

Experimental Design

Schematic

schematic of experiment design

Documentation

Details

Contributors

Instrument Information

Delta-T SPN1 (global/diffuse radiometer)
Delta-T SPN1 (global/diffuse radiometer)
Delta-T SPN1 (global/diffuse radiometer) EKO MS-80/MS80M (SW radiometer)
EKO MS-80/MS80M (SW radiometer)
EKO MS-80/MS80M (SW radiometer)
EKO MS-802 (SW radiometer)
EKO MS-802 (SW radiometer)
EKO MS-802 (SW radiometer) EKO MV01 (ventilator)
EKO MV01 (ventilator)
EKO MV01 (ventilator)
Eigenbrodt SBL 480/550 (ventilator)
Eigenbrodt SBL 480/550 (ventilator)
Eigenbrodt SBL 480/550 (ventilator) Eppley PIR (LW radiometer)
Eppley PIR (LW radiometer)
Eppley PIR (LW radiometer)
Eppley PSP/SPP (SW radiometer)
Eppley PSP/SPP (SW radiometer)
Eppley PSP/SPP (SW radiometer) Eppley VEN (ventilator)
Eppley VEN (ventilator)
Eppley VEN (ventilator)
Hukseflux SR25 (SW radiometer)
Hukseflux SR25 (SW radiometer)
Hukseflux SR25 (SW radiometer) Hukseflux IR20 (LW radiometer)
Hukseflux IR20 (LW radiometer)
Hukseflux IR20 (LW radiometer)
Hukseflux SR30 (SW radiometer)
Hukseflux SR30 (SW radiometer)
Hukseflux SR30 (SW radiometer) Hukseflux DR02 (direct radiometer)
Hukseflux DR02 (direct radiometer)
Hukseflux DR02 (direct radiometer)
Hukseflux VU01 (ventilator)
Hukseflux VU01 (ventilator)
Hukseflux VU01 (ventilator) Kipp&Zonen SGR4 (LW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen SGR4 (LW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen SGR4 (LW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CGR4 (LW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CGR4 (LW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CGR4 (LW radiometer) Kipp&Zonen SMP22 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen SMP22 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen SMP22 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CMP22 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CMP22 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CMP22 (SW radiometer) Kipp&Zonen CM11 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CM11 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CM11 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CM21 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CM21 (SW radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CM21 (SW radiometer) Kipp&Zonen CHP1 (direct radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CHP1 (direct radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CHP1 (direct radiometer)
Kipp&Zonen CVF4 (ventilator)
Kipp&Zonen CVF4 (ventilator)
Kipp&Zonen CVF4 (ventilator) PMOD VHS (ventilator)
PMOD VHS (ventilator)
PMOD VHS (ventilator)

Station Information

Preliminary Data




Current Date:  2017/08/27
Type: 
Instrument: 
Variable: 

Webcam Images

Camera 1: 2017-11-20-06-45

camera 1

Camera 2: 2017-11-20-06-45

camera 2

Camera 3: 2017-11-20-00-00

camera 3


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