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Pallas-Sammaltunturi, GAW Station, Finland
Site Latitude 67° 58' 23.88" N (67.97330 °N)
Site Longitude 24° 6' 56.52" E (24.11570 °E)
Site Elevation565.0 masl
Site codePAL
Datasetco2_pal_surface-insitu_30_marine (GLOBALVIEW identifier PAL_30C0)
AssimilatedYes
Selection schemeMarine selection includes non-local data, for which 5-day back trajectory is >70% of the time over sea, and remaining outliers are rejected.
Data providerJuha Hatakka, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, P.O.Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland, and Tuula Aalto, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, P.O.Box 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Partner(s)No partner information available.
Laboratory
Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O.Box 503 FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
Download these data via ObsPack.

(a) Time series of CO2 mole fractions, both simulated and observed, at this CarbonTracker observation site. In the top panel, measured mole fractions (open black circles) are plotted along with CarbonTracker simulated values (filled light blue circles). Any observations that CarbonTracker can not assimilate successfully are shown as filled red circles.
(b) The time series of model residuals--the difference between the simulated and measured mole fractions--shown with dark green filled circles. These residuals should be uncorrelated in time, unbiased (i.e., have a mean of zero), and distributed normally. Also shown in the lower panel is the imposed model-data mismatch ("MDM", orange lines), which in part defines the rejection criterion (see documentation). Any model first guess value which is more than three times the MDM away from zero, after accounting for potential adjustments to the simulated value due to optimizing fluxes, is rejected by the optimization system. Rejected values, if there are any, are shown with filled red circles.

(c) Seasonal histograms of residuals


(c) Seasonal histograms of the residuals for this dataset. See caption for top figure for the definition of residuals. The left panel collects all residuals for each northern hemisphere summer (June through September); the right panel is the northern hemisphere winter (November through April). Residuals before 1 Jan 2001 are excluded from this analysis to avoid an effect of CarbonTracker burn-in from a poorly-known initial CO2 distribution. The tan color shows the histogram of the residuals themselves; the blue lines and statistics shown in blue text are a summary of the residuals interpreted as a normal distribution. For assimilated observations, the assumed model-data mismatch averaged over the seasonal span is shown in green (lines and text). The vertical scales are relative, determined by the number of observations and how tightly they are grouped, with the area under the histogram forced to unity.