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Penland C., D.-Z. Sun, A. Capotondi and D. J. Vimont (January 2010): A brief introduction to El Niño and La Niña. In: Climate Dynamics: Why Does Climate Vary? Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 189 . AGU, Washington, DC, 53-64. ISBN 978-0-87590-480-1

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In this chapter, we introduce El Niño and La Niña as deviations from the annual climate cycle in the tropical Pacific.We first orient the reader with a synopsis of the climatological average of global climate patterns of sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, surface winds, and precipitation in boreal and austral winters. Then the salient features of El Niño and La Niña are presented. Finally, we discuss evidence of how these features may have differed in the past from what is currently observed.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: PSD Publications
Divisions: Physical Sciences Division
DOI: 10.1029/2008GM000846