El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Datasets Useful for ENSO Research
Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Gridded SST datasets are available for monthly means and for daily. Values can be mean or anomalies. Gaps usually exist in SST dataaets both in space and time. Different datasets use different models to fill in gaps.
|CRU Air Temperature and Combined Air Temperature/Marine Anomalies V4||Global||5.0°x5.0°||Monthly||1850-2013||None|
|NCEP GODAS ocean analysis||Global||.3°x.3°||Monthly||1980-present||40|
|NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis||Global||2.5°x2.5°, T42 Gaussian, T62 spectral||4X Daily, Daily, Monthly||1948-present||17 pressure levels, 28 spectral|
|NOAA Extended Reconstructed SST V4||Global||1.0°x1.0°||Monthly||1854-present||None|
|NOAA High-resolution Blended Analysis of Daily SST and Ice.||Global||.25°x.25°||Daily||1981-present||None|
|NOAA Global Surface Temperature (NOAAGlobalTemp)||Global||5.0°x5.0°||Daily||1880-present||None|
|NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) SST V2||Global||1.0°x1.0°||Monthly,Weekly||1981-present||None|
|COBE-SST2 Sea Surface Temperature||Global||1.0°x1.0°||Monthly||1850-2012||None|
|NODC (Levitus) World Ocean Atlas 1994||Global||1.0°x1.0°||Monthly,Annual||Climo||None|
|NODC (Levitus) World Ocean Atlas 1998||Global||1.0°x1.0°||Monthly,Annual||Climo||None|
Outgoing Long Wave Radiation (OLR)
OLR is a measure of tropical convection and has been available via satellite observations since the early 1970's. We make available gridded interpolated values as well as the provided directly from NCEP (which are more recent).
|Interpolated OLR||Global||2.5°x2.5°||Daily,Monthly||1979-near present||None|
While ENSO is a process that varies both in space and time, it can be convenient to use single time series to represent in monitoring and analysis. Some of these time series are SST averages in a specific region of the tropical Pacific while others use more than 1 variable to attempt to capture more of the dynamical processes that occur in ENSO.
|Multivariate ENSO index: MEI||Tropical Pacific||1950-present|
|Extended Multivariate ENSO index: MEI.ext||Tropical Pacific||1871-2005|
|Nina 3||SST 5N-5S,150W-90W||1870-present|
|Nina 3.4||SST 5N-5S,150W-90W||1870-present|
|Nina 4||SST 5N-5S,150W-90W||1870-present|
|TNI||Difference Nina 1.2 and Nina 4||1870-present|
|SOI||Difference SP Tahita and Darwin||1870-present|
As ENSO impacts weather and climate in general, researchers need to potentially look at all atmosperic and ocean variables. PSD maintains an extensive collection of gridded datasets including our 20th Century Reanalysis(1851=2012). Other dataset can be found from links on PSD's data information webpage. Some other NOAA sites also link to ENSO related datasets: for example,PMEL has an ENSO data source list.