Role of land surface parameterizations on modeling cold-pooling events and low-level jets
Land surface parameterization schemes play a significant role in the accuracy of meso-local scale numerical models by accounting for the exchange of energy and water between the soil and the atmosphere. The role of land surface processes during large-scale cold-pooling events was studied with two land surface schemes (LSMs) in the Advanced Research Weather Forecasting model (ARW). Model evaluation was complex due to the surface and boundary layer interactions at different temporal and spatial scales as revealed by a scale dependent variance analysis. Wavelet analysis was used for the first time to analyze the model errors with specific focus on land surface processes. The ARW model was also evaluated for the formation of a low-level jet (LLJ). It is shown that vertical resolution in the model boundary layer played a significant role in determining the characteristics of LLJ, which influenced the lower boundary layer structure and moisture distribution. The results showed that the simulated low-level jet over southern Georgia was sensitive to the land surface parameterization and led to a significant difference in the boundary layer exchange. The jet shear played a crucial role in the maintenance of turbulence and weak shear caused excessive radiative cooling leading to unrealistic cold pools in the model. The results are important for regional downscaling as the excessive cold pools that are simulated in the model can go unnoticed.