On the Use of an Adaptive, Hybrid-Isentropic Vertical Coordinate in Global Atmospheric Modeling
This article is one in a series describing the functionality of the Flow-Following, Finite-Volume Icosahedral Model (FIM) developed at NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory. Emphasis in this article is on the design of the vertical coordinate—the ‘‘flow following’’ aspect of FIM. The coordinate is terrain-following near the ground and isentropic in the free atmosphere. The spatial transition between the two coordinates is adaptive and is based on the arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) paradigm. The impact of vertical reso- lution trade-offs between the present hybrid approach and traditional terrain-following coordinates is dem- onstrated in a three-part case study.