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WMO CO2 Mole Fraction Scale
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Instituto de Pesquisas Energés e Nucleares, Il Centro de Quí e Meio Ambiente, Divisao de Q Quimica Ambiental (IPEN-CQMA) ), Brazil
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Environment Canada (EC), Canada
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Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) / Centre for Atmosphere Watch & Services (CAWAS), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), P.R. of China
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Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Finland
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Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) and Unitéixte de Recherche CEA-CNRS, France
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Italian Air Force Meteorological Service, (IAFMS), Italy
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Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Japan
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National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) and Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan
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University of Groningen, Centre for Isotope Research [RUG], Netherlands
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South African Weather Service (SAWS), South Africa
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Izana Atmospheric Research Center, Meteorological State Agency of Spain (AEMET), Spain
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University of Bern, Physics Institute, Climate and Environmental Physics [KUP], Switzerland
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National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), United States
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NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - Flask measurements
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NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - In situ measurements
- Peterson, J.T., W.D. Komhyr, L.S. Waterman, R.H. Gammon, K.W. Thoning, and T.J. Conway, Atmospheric CO2 variations at Barrow, Alaska, 1973 1982, J. Atmos. Chem., 4, 491 510, 1986.
- Herbert, G.A., E.R. Green, J.M. Harris, G.L. Koenig, S.J. Roughton, and K.W. Thaut, Control and monitoring instrumentation for the continuous measurement of atmospheric CO2 and meteorological variables, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 3, 414 421, 1986.
- Gillette, D.A., W.D. Komhyr, L.S. Waterman, L.P. Steele, and R.H. Gammon, The NOAA/GMCC continuous CO2 record at the South Pole, 1975 1982, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 4231 4240, 1987.
- Halter, B.C., Harris, J.M., and Conway, T.J., Component signals in the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration at American Samoa, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 15914 15918, 1988.
- Komhyr, W.D., T.B. Harris, L.S. Waterman, J.F.S. Chin, and K.W. Thoning, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory: 1. NOAA Global Monitoring for Climatic Change measurements with a nondispersive infrared analyzer, 1974 1985, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8533 8547, 1989.
- Thoning, K.W., T.J. Conway, N. Zhang, and D. Kitzis, Analysis System for Measurement of CO2 Mixing Ratios in Flask Air Samples, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1349-1356, 1995.
- Thoning, K.W., P.P. Tans, and W.D. Komhyr, Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2. Analysis of the NOAA/GMCC data, 1974 1985., J. Geophys. Res. ,94, 8549 8565, 1989.
- Thoning, K.W. Selection of NOAA/GMCC CO2 data from Mauna Loa Observatory, In The Statistical Treatment of CO2 Data Records, NOAA Tech. Mem. (ERL ARL 173), Environ. Res. Lab., 131 pp., 1989
- Waterman, L.S., D. W. Nelson, W.D. Komhyr, T.B. Harris, and K.W. Thoning, Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements at Cape Matatula, American Samoa, 1976 1984., J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14817 14829, 1989.
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - Tall-tower measurements
- Bakwin, P.S, P.P. Tans, C. Zhao, W. Ussler III, and E. Quesnell, Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower, Tellus. 47B, 535-549, 1995.
NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), United States - Aircraft measurements
- Bakwin, P.S., Conway, T.J., Dlugokencky, E.J., Guenther, D.W., Kitzis, D, Lang, P.M., Masarie, K.A., Novelli, P.C., Thoning, K.W., Tans, P.P., and Waterman, L.S., in Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory GMD NO. 22 Summary Report 1994, edited by J.T. Peterson and R.M. Rosson, pp 18-30, US Department of Commerce, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, 1994.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), United States - Flask measurements
- Keeling, R. F., S. R. Shertz, 1992, "Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global carbon cycle" Nature, 358, 723-727.
- Keeling, R.F., Piper, S.C., Heimann, M., 1996, "Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration", Nature, 381, 218-221.
- Keeling, R.F., Stephens, B.B., Najjar, R.G., Doney, S.C., Archer, D., Heimann, M., 1998, "Seasonal Variations in the atmospheric O2/N2 ratio in relation to kinetics of air-sea gas exchange", Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 141-163.
- Keeling, R.F., McEvoy, E., Manning, A.C., Shertz, S.R., 1998, "Methods for measuring changes in atmospheric O2 concentration and their application to southern hemisphere air", Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 3381-3397.
- Stephens, B.B., Keeling, R.F., Heimann, M., Six, K.D., Murnane, R.,K. Caldeira, 1988, "Testing global ocean carbon cycle models using measurements of atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentration", Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 213-230.
- Manning, A.C., Temporal variability of atmospheric oxygen from both continuous measurements and a flask sampling network: tools for studying the global carbon cycle, Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 202pp, 2001.