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Mauna Loa, Hawaii, United States
Site Latitude 19° 32' 10.32" N (19.53620 °N)
Site Longitude 155° 34' 34.68" W (-155.57630 °E)
Site Elevation3397.0 masl
Site codeMLO
Datasetco2_mlo_surface-flask_426_representative (GLOBALVIEW identifier MLO_426D0)
AssimilatedYes Switch to unassimilated subset
Selection schemerepresentative with outliers flagged
Data providerRalph Keeling, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States, and Steve Piper, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States, and Alane Bollenbacher, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States, and Sara Afshar, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States, and Bill Paplawsky, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States, and Adam Cox, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States, and Stephen Walker, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States
Partner(s)No partner information available.
Laboratory
Scripps Institution of Oceanography CO2 Program, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, United States
Download these data via ObsPack.

(a) Time series of CO2 mole fractions, both simulated and observed, at this CarbonTracker observation site. In the top panel, measured mole fractions (open black circles) are plotted along with CarbonTracker simulated values (filled light blue circles). Any observations that CarbonTracker can not assimilate successfully are shown as filled red circles.
(b) The time series of model residuals--the difference between the simulated and measured mole fractions--shown with dark green filled circles. These residuals should be uncorrelated in time, unbiased (i.e., have a mean of zero), and distributed normally. Also shown in the lower panel is the imposed model-data mismatch ("MDM", orange lines), which in part defines the rejection criterion (see documentation). Any model first guess value which is more than three times the MDM away from zero, after accounting for potential adjustments to the simulated value due to optimizing fluxes, is rejected by the optimization system. Rejected values, if there are any, are shown with filled red circles.

(c) Seasonal histograms of residuals


(c) Seasonal histograms of the residuals for this dataset. See caption for top figure for the definition of residuals. The left panel collects all residuals for each northern hemisphere summer (June through September); the right panel is the northern hemisphere winter (November through April). Residuals before 1 Jan 2001 are excluded from this analysis to avoid an effect of CarbonTracker burn-in from a poorly-known initial CO2 distribution. The tan color shows the histogram of the residuals themselves; the blue lines and statistics shown in blue text are a summary of the residuals interpreted as a normal distribution. For assimilated observations, the assumed model-data mismatch averaged over the seasonal span is shown in green (lines and text). The vertical scales are relative, determined by the number of observations and how tightly they are grouped, with the area under the histogram forced to unity.