Ostashev V. E., M. V. Scanlon, D. K. Wilson and S. N. Vecherin (December 2008): Source localization from an elevated acoustic sensor array in a refractive atmosphere. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124 (6), 3413-3420. doi:10.1121/1.3003085Full text not available from this repository.
Localization of sound sources on the ground from an acoustic sensor array elevated on a tethered aerostat is considered. To improve estimation of the source coordinates, one should take into account refraction of sound rays due to atmospheric stratification. Using a geometrical acoustics approximation for a stratified moving medium, formulas for the source coordinates are derived that account for sound refraction. The source coordinates are expressed in terms of the direction of sound propagation as measured by the sensor array, its coordinates, and the vertical profiles of temperature and wind velocity. Employing these formulas and typical temperature and wind velocity profiles in the atmosphere, it is shown numerically that sound refraction is important for accurate predictions of the source coordinates. Furthermore, it is shown that the effective sound speed approximation, which is widely used in atmospheric acoustics, fails to correctly predict the source coordinates if the grazing angle of sound propagation is relatively large.
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