Michelson S. A., I. Djalalova and J.-W. Bao (November 2010): Evaluation of the Summertime Low-Level Winds Simulated by MM5 in the Central Valley of California. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 49 (11), 2230-2245. doi:10.1175/2010JAMC2295.1Full text not available from this repository.
A season-long set of 5-day simulations between 1200 UTC 1 June and 1200 UTC 30 September 2000 are evaluated using the observations taken during the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) 2000 experiment. The simulations are carried out using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5), which is widely used for air-quality simulations and control planning. The evaluation results strongly indicate that the model-simulated low-level winds in California’s Central Valley are biased in speed and direction: the simulated winds tend to have a stronger northwesterly component than observed. This bias is related to the difference in the observed and simulated large-scale, upper-level flows. The model simulations also show a bias in the height of the daytime atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), particularly in the northern and southern Central Valley. There is evidence to suggest that this bias in the daytime ABL height is not only associated with the large-scale, upper-level bias but also linked to apparent differences in the surface forcing.
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