Du P., E. Girard, A. K. Bertram and M. D. Shupe (September 2011): Modeling of the cloud and radiation processes observed during SHEBA. Atmos. Res., 101 (4), 911-927. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.05.018Full text not available from this repository.
Six microphysics schemes implemented in the climate version of the Environment Canada's Global Multiscale Environmental (GEM) model are used to simulate the cloud and radiation processes observed during Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) field experiment. The simplest microphysics scheme (SUN) has one prognostic variable: the total cloud water content. The second microphysics scheme (MLO) has 12 prognostic variables. The four other microphysics schemes are modified versions of MLO. A new parameterization for heterogeneous ice nucleation based on laboratory experiments is included in these versions of MLO. One is for uncoated ice nuclei (ML-NAC) and another is for sulfuric acid coated ice nuclei (ML-AC). ML-AC and ML-NAC have been developed to distinguish non-polluted and polluted air masses, the latter being common over the Arctic during winter and spring. A sensitivity study, in which the dust concentration is reduced by a factor 5, is also performed to assess the sensitivity of the results to the dust concentration in ML-AC-test and ML-NAC-test. Results show that SUN, ML-AC and ML-AC-test reproduce quite well the downward longwave radiation and cloud radiative forcing during the cold season. The good results obtained with SUN are due to compensating errors. It overestimates cloud fraction and underestimates cloud liquid water path during winter. ML-AC and ML-AC-test reproduces quite well all these variables and their relationships. MLO, ML-NAC and ML-NAC-test underestimate the cloud liquid water path and cloud fraction during the cold season, which leads to an underestimation of the downward longwave radiation at surface. During summer, all versions of the model underestimate the downward shortwave radiation at surface. ML-AC and ML-NAC overestimate the total cloud water during the warm season, however, they reproduce relatively well the relationships between cloud radiative forcing and cloud microstructure, which is not the case for the most simple scheme SUN.
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