Ralph F. M., M. D. Dettinger, A. B. White, D. W. Reynolds, D. R. Cayan, T. Schneider, R. Cifelli, K. Redmond, M. L. Anderson, F. Gherke, J. Jones, K. M. Mahoney, L. E. Johnson, S. I. Gutman, V. Chandrasekar, J. D. Lundquist, N. P. Molotch, L. Brekke, R. S. Pulwarty, . . . and G. A. Wick (April 2014): A Vision of Future Observations for Western U.S. Extreme Precipitation and Flooding. J. Contemp. Water Res. Ed., 153 (DOI?), 16-32.Full text not available from this repository.
Recent and historical events illustrate the vulnerabilities of the U.S. west to extremes in precipitation that result from a range of meteorological phenomena. This vision provides an approach to mitigating impacts of such weather and water extremes that is tailored to the unique meteorological conditions and user needs of the Western U.S. in the 21st Century. It includes observations for tracking, predicting, and managing the occurrence and impacts of major storms and is informed by a range of user-requirements, workshops, scientific advances, and technological demonstrations. The vision recommends innovations and enhancements to existing monitoring networks for rain, snow, snowmelt, flood, and their hydrometeorological precursor conditions, including radars to monitor winds aloft and precipitation, soil moisture sensors, stream gages, and SNOTEL enhancements, as well as entirely new observational tools. Key limitations include monitoring the fuel for heavy precipitation, storms over the eastern Pacific, precipitation distributions, and snow and soil moisture conditions. This article presents motivation and context, and describes key components, an implementation strategy, and expected benefits. This document supports a Resolution of the Western States Water Council for addressing extreme events.
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