Woodruff, S. D., H. F. Diaz, J. D. Elms, and S. J. Worley, 1998: COADS Release 2 data and metadata enhancements for improvements of marine surface flux fields. Phys. Chem. Earth, 23, 517-526.
The Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) has been updated through a cooperative U.S. project since 1981, including vital international contributions. Quality controlled marine surface observations from ships have been supplemented in more recent years to include moored environmental buoys, drifting buoys, and near-surface measurements from oceanographic profiles. The data set now covers 142 years, 1854-1995. Monthly statistics of pseudo-fluxes and basic marine variables are calculated for each year using observed data falling within 2° latitude × 2° longitude boxes (1°×1° summaries are also available for 1960-93). Enhancements in data and metadata planned for the year 2000 as part of COADS Release 2 (~1820-1997) will concentrate on the basic observational records. In addition to new data sources, which will augment flux estimates through expanded coverage, planned enhancements include: a) usage of selected metadata from WMO Pub. No. 47 (ship instrumentation history) to improve the observational records back to about 1973; b) improvements in the reliability of the wind speed ("estimated/measured') indicator; and c) bias adjustments of wind speed Beaufort estimates and anemometer measurements.