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  Polar Observations and Processes

SHEBA References

Cloud Radar References

Moran, K.P., B.E. Martner, M.J. Post, R.A. Kropfli, D.C. Welsh, and K.B. Widener, 1998: An unattended cloud profiling radar for use in climate research. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 443-455.
Clothiaux, E.E., K.P. Moran, B.E. Martner, T.P. Ackerman, G.G. Mace, T. Uttal, J.H. Mather, K.B. Widener, M.A. Miller and D.J. Rodriguez, 1999:  The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program cloud radars: Operational modes. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 819-827.
Clothiaux, E.E., T.P. Ackerman, G.G. Mace, K.P. Moran, R.T. Marchand, M.A. Miller, and B.E. Martner, 2000:  Objective determination of cloud heights and radar reflectivities using a combination of active remote sensors at the ARM CART sites. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 645-665.

Radiometer References

Hogg, D. C., F. O. Guiraud, J. B. Snider, M. T. Decker and E. R. Westwater, 1983: A steerable dual-channel microwave radiometer for measurement of water vapor and liquid in the troposphere. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 22, 789-806.
Liljegren, J.C. 1994. Two-channel microwave radiometer for observations of total column precipitable water vapor and cloud liquid water, Fifth Symposium on Global Change Studies, pp 262-269. January 23-28, 1994, American Meteorological Society, Nashville, Tennessee.
Revercomb, H.E., H. Buijs, H.B. Howell, D.D. LaPorte, W. L. Smith, and L.A. Sromovsky. Radiometric Calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers: solution to a problem with the High- Resolution Interferometer Sounder. Applied Optics, 27, 3210 - 3218.
Westwater, E.R., Y.Han, M.D. Shupe, and S.Y. Matrosov, 2001: Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor retrievals from microwave radiometers during SHEBA. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32 019-32 030.
Liljegren, J.C., E.E. Clothiaux, G.G. Mace, S. Kato and X. Dong, 2001: A new retrieval for cloud liquid water path using a ground-based microwave radiometer and measurements of clou temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14 485-14 500.

Lidar References

Grund, C. J., and S. P. Sandberg, 1996: Depolarization and backscatter lidar for unattended operation, in Proceedings 18th International Laser Radar Conference. Springer, New York, pp. 3-7.
Alvarez, R. J., III, W. L. Eberhard, J. M. Intrieri, S. P. Sandberg, and K. W. Koenig, 1998: Cloud backscatter and phase measurements in the Arctic using ETL's DABUL lidar. Proceedings 4th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, Mass., pp. 7-9.

Liquid Cloud Retrieval References

Frisch, A.S., 1991: On the measurement of second moments of turbulent wind velocity with a single Doppler radar over non-homogeneous terrain. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 54, 29-39.
Frisch, A.S., C.W. Fairall, and J.B. Snider, 1995: Measurement of stratus cloud and drizzle parameters in ASTEX with a Ka-band Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer. J. Atmos. Sci., 52(16), 2788-2799.
Frisch, A.S., C.W. Fairall, G. Feingold, T. Uttal, and J.B. Snider, 1998: On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. J. Geophys. Res., 103(D18), 23 195-23 197.
Frisch, A.S., B.E. Martner, I. Djalalova, and M. Poellot, 2000: Comparison of radar/radiometer retrievals of stratus cloud liquid-water content profiles with in-situ measurements by aircraft. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D12), 15 361-15 364.
Frisch, A.S., M. Shupe, I. Djalalova, G. Feingold, and M. Poellot, 2002: The retrieval of stratus cloud droplet effective radius with cloud radars. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 19, 835-842.

Ice Cloud Retrieval References

Matrosov, S.Y., T. Uttal, J.B. Snider, and R.A. Kropfli, 1992: Estimation of ice cloud parameters from ground-based infrared radiometer and radar measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 97(D11), 11 567-11 574.
Matrosov, S.Y., 1992: Radar reflectivity in snowfall. IEEE Trans. Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 30(3), 454-461.
Matrosov, S.Y., B.W. Orr, R.A. Kropfli, and J.B. Snider, 1994: Retrieval of vertical profiles of cirrus cloud microphysical parameters from Doppler radar and infrared radiometer measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 33(5), 617-626.
Matrosov, S.Y., A.J. Heymsfield, R.A. Kropfli, B.E. Martner, R.F. Reinking, J.B. Snider, P. Piironen, and E.W. Eloranta, 1995: Comparisons of ice cloud parameters obtained by combined remote sensor retrievals and direct methods. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 15(1), 184-196.
Matrosov, S.Y., A.J. Heymsfield, J.M. Intrieri, B.W. Orr, and J.B. Snider, 1995: Ground-based remote sensing cloud particle sizes during the November 26, 1991 FIRE-II cirrus case: Comparisons with in situ data. J. Atmos. Sci., 52(23), 4128-4142.
Matrosov, S.Y., 1997: Variability of microphysical parameters in high altitude ice clouds: Results of the remote sensing method. J. Appl. Meteor., 36(6), 633-648.
Matrosov, S.Y., 1999: Retrieval of vertical profiles of ice cloud microphysics from radar and IR measurements using adjusted regressions between reflectivity and cloud parameters. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D14), 16 741-16 753.
Matrosov, S.Y., and A.J. Heymsfield, 2000: Use of Doppler radar to assess ice cloud particle fall velocity-size relations for remote sensing and climate studies. J. Geophys. Res., 105(D17), 22 427-22 436 .
Matrosov, S.Y., A.V. Korolev, and A.J. Heymsfield, 2002: Profiling of cloud ice mass and particle characteristic size from Doppler radar measurements. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 19, 1003-1018 .
Matrosov, S.Y., M. D. Shupe, A. J. Heymsfield, and P. Zuidema, 2003: Ice cloud optical thickness and extinction estimates from radar measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 1584-1597.

Precipitation Retrievals

Marshall, J.S., and W.M. Palmer, 1948: The distribution of raindrops with size. J. Meteor., 5, 165-166.
Gunn, K. L. S., and J.S. Marshall, 1958: The distribution with size of aggregate snowflakes. J. Meteor., 15, 452-651.

Optical Depth References

Slingo, A., 1989: A GCM parameterization for the shorwave radiative properties of water clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 1419-1427.
Matrosov, S.Y. and J.B. Snider, 1995: Studies of cloud ice water path and optical thickness during FIRE-II. SPIE Proceedings vol. 2578,133-137.
Matrosov, S.Y., M. D. Shupe, A. J. Heymsfield, and P. Zuidema, 2003: Ice cloud optical thickness and extinction estimates from radar measurements. J. Appl. Meteor., 42, 1584-1597.

Program References

Stokes, G.M. and S.E. Schwartz, 1994: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75, 1201-1221.
Ackerman, T., and G. Stokes. 2003: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Physics Today 56, 38-45.
Curry, J.A., and Coauthors, 2000: FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 81, 5-30.
Uttal, T., J, A. Curry, M.G. McPhee, D. K. Perovich, R. E. Moritz, J.A. Maslanik, P. S. Guest, H. L. Stern, J. A. Moore, R. Turenne, A. Heiberg, M. C. Serreze, D. P. Wylie., P.O.G. Persson, C. A. Paulson, C. Halle, J. H. Morison, P. A.Wheeler, A. Makshtas, H. Welch, M. D. Shupe, J. M. Intrieri, K. Stamnes, R. W. Lindsey, R. Pinkel, W. S. Pegau, T. P. Stanton, T. C. Grenfeld, 2002: Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 255-275.
Perovich, D. K., and Coauthors, 1999: The Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean. Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 80, 481-486.
Wielicki, B. A., R. D. Cess, M. D. King, D. A. Randall, and E. F. Harrison, 1995: Mission to Planet Earth: Role of Clouds and Radiation in Climate. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 76, 2125-2153.
Randall, D.A., J.A. Curry, D. Battisti, G. Flato, R. Grumbine, S. Hakkinen, D. Martinson, R. Preller, J. Walsh, and J. Weatherly, 1998: Status of and outlook for large-scale modeling of atmosphere- ice-ocean interactions in the Arctic. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 197-219.

Pers Utilizing Cloud Microphysics Retrievals and Related Data

Key, J. and J.M. Intrieri, 2000: Cloud particle phase determination with the AVHRR. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 1797-1804.
Shupe, M.D., T. Uttal, S.Y. Matrosov, and A.S. Frisch, 2001: Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 015-15 028.
Hobbs, P.V., A.L. Rangno, M.D. Shupe, and T. Uttal , 2001: Airborne studies of cloud structures over the Arctic Ocean and comparisons with deductions from ship-based 35-GHz radar measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 029-15 044.
Khvorostyanov, V.I., J.A. Curry, J.O. Pinto, M. Shupe, B.A. Baker, and K. Sassen, 2001: Modeling with explicit spectral water and ice microphysics of a two-layer cloud system of altostratus and cirrus observed during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 099-15 112.
Minnis, P., V. Chakrapani, D.R. Doelling, L. Nguyen, R. Palikonda, D.A. Spangenberg, T. Uttal, R.F. Arduini, and M. Shupe, 2001: Cloud coverage and height during FIRE ACE derived from AVHRR data. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 215-15 232.
Dong, X., G.G. Mace, P. Minnis, and D.F. Young, 2001: Arctic stratus cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: Selected cases from FIRE ACE. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 15 297-15 312.
Loehnert, U., G. Feingold, T. Uttal, A.S. Frisch, and M.D. Shupe, 2003: Analysis of two independent methods for retrieving liquid water profiles in spring and summer Arctic boundary clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D7), 4219, doi:10.1029/2002JD002861.
Morrison, H., M.D. Shupe, and J.A. Curry, 2003: Modeling clodus observed at SHEBA using a bulk microphysics parameterization implemented into a single-column model. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D8), 4255, doi:10.1029/2002JD002229.
Zhang, J., and U. Lohmann, 2003: Sensitivity of single column model simulations of Arctic springtime clouds to different cloud cover and mixed phase cloud parameterizations. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D15), 4439, doi:10.1029/2002JD003136.
Shupe, M.D., and J.M. Intrieri, 2004: Cloud radiative forcing of the Arctic surface: The influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle. J. Climate, 17, 616-628.