Scientific Resources

For individuals looking to find scientific publications relating to: (1) carbon isotopes of carbon dioxide, (2) stable isotope measurement methods, (3) radiocarbon measurement methods, and (4) isotope modeling, the following list provides an initial source of references. Measurement methods described in the following methodology papers relate specifically to the methods employed at INSTAAR (University of Colorado's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research) for NOAA's Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gases Group.

Selected scientific references:

Stable isotope measurement methods at NOAA/INSTAAR

Vaughn, B. H., D. F. Ferretti, J. B. Miller, and J. W. C. White (2004), Stable isotope measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, in Handbook of stable isotope analytical techniques, edited, Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Trolier, M., J. W. C. White, P. P. Tans, K. A. Masarie, and P. A. Gemery (1996), Monitoring the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2: measurements from the NOAA global air sampling network, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D20), 25897-25916.

Radiocarbon measurement methods at NOAA/INSTAAR

Turnbull, J. C., S. J. Lehman, J. B. Miller, R. J. Sparks, J. R. Southon, and P. P. Tans (2007), A new high precision 14CO2 time series for North American continental air, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11310.

Turnbull, J. C., S. J. Lehman, S. Morgan, and C. Wolak (2010), A new automated extraction system for 14C measurement in atmospheric CO2, Radiocarbon, in press.

Lehman, S.J., Miller, J., Turnbull, J., Southon, J., Tans, P., and C. Sweeney, (in press). 14CO2 measurements in the NOAA/ESRL Global Co-operative Sampling Network: An update on measurements and data quality.  Expert Group Recommendations from the 15th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide, _Other Greenhouse Gases, and Related Tracer _Measurement Techniques, Jena.

Stable isotopes in CO2

Tans, P. P., J. A. Berry, and R. F. Keeling (1993), Ocean 13C/12C observations: a new window on ocean CO2 uptake, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(2), 353-368.

Ciais, P., Tans, P. P., Trolier, M., White, J. W. C. and Francey, R. J. (1995). A Large Northern Hemisphere Terrestrial CO2 Sink Indicated by the 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric CO2. Science 269, 1098-1102.

Ciais, P., Tans, P. P., White, J. W. C., Trolier, M., Francey, R. J., Berry, J. A., Randall, D. R., Sellers, P. J., Collatz, J. G. and Schimel, D. S. (1995). Partitioning of Ocean and Land Uptake of CO2 as Inferred by Delta-C-13 Measurements from the Noaa Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 5051-5070.

Battle, M., Bender, M. L., Tans, P. P., White, J. W. C., Ellis, J. T., Conway, T. and Francey, R. J. (2000). Global Carbon Sinks and Their Variability Inferred from Atmospheric O2 and 13C. Science 287, 2467-2470.

Miller, J. B., Tans, P. P., White, J. W. C., Conway, T. J. and Vaughn, B. W. (2003). The Atmospheric Signal of Terrestrial Carbon Isotopic Discrimination and Its Implication for Partitioning Carbon Fluxes. Tellus, Ser. B 55, 197-206.

Miller, J. B. and Tans, P. P. (2003). Calculating Isotopic Fractionation from Atmospheric Measurements at Various Scales. Tellus, Ser. B 55, 207-214.

Alden, C. B., Miller, J. B. and White, J. W. C. (2010). Can Bottom-up Ocean CO2 Fluxes by Reconciled with Atmospheric 13C Observations? Tellus B In Press.

Radiocarbon in CO2

14CO2 as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2

Suess, H. E. (1955), Radiocarbon concentration in modern wood, Science, 122, 414-417.

Tans, P. P., A. F. De Jong, and W. G. Mook (1979), Natural atmospheric 14C variation and the Suess effect, Nature, 280, 826-828.

Turnbull, J. C., J. B. Miller, S. J. Lehman, P. P. Tans, R. J. Sparks, and J. R. Southon (2006), Comparison of 14CO2, CO and SF6 as tracers for determination of recently added fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere and implications for biological CO2 exchange, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01817.

14CO2 modeling

Turnbull, J. C., P. J. Rayner, J. B. Miller, T. Naegler, P. Ciais, and A. Cozic (2009), On the use of 14CO2 as a tracer for fossil fuel CO2: quantifying uncertainties using an atmospheric transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D22302.

Randerson, J., I. G. Enting, E. A. G. Schuur, K. Caldeira, and I. Y. Fung (2002), Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere Δ14CO2: post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(4), 1112.