The NOAA/ESRL/GMD CCGG cooperative air sampling network effort began in 1967 at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. Today, the network is an international effort which includes regular discrete samples from the NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline observatories, cooperative fixed sites, and commercial ships. Air samples are collected approximately weekly from a globally distributed network of sites. Samples are analyzed for CO2, CH4, CO, H2, N2O, and SF6; and by INSTAAR for the stable isotopes of CO2 and CH4 and for many volatile organic compounds (voc) such as ethane (C2H6), ethylene (C2H4) and propane (C3H8). Measurement data are used to identify long-term trends, seasonal variability, and spatial distribution of carbon cycle gases.


Yellow symbols indicate discontinued sites


141 sites in 45 countries
Code Name Country Latitude Longitude Elevation (meters) Time from GMT Cooperating Agency
ABP* Arembepe, Bahia Brazil -12.770 -38.170 1.0 -3 hours Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente, Laboratorio de Quimica Atmosferica
ALT Alert, Nunavut Canada 82.451 -62.506 200.0 -4 hours Environment Canada
AMS* Amsterdam Island France -37.950 77.530 150.0 +5 hours Centre des Faibles Radioactivities/TAAF
AMT Argyle, Maine United States 45.035 -68.682 53.0 -5 hours University of Maine
AMY Anmyeon-do Republic of Korea 36.539 126.329 85.1 +9 hours Korea Global Atmosphere Watch Center, Korea Meteorological Administration
ASC Ascension Island United Kingdom -7.967 -14.400 85.0 -1 hours Met Office (United Kingdom)
ASK Assekrem Algeria 23.262 5.632 2710.0 +1 hours Office National de la Meteorologie
AVI* St. Croix, Virgin Islands United States 17.750 -64.750 3.0 -4 hours Fairleigh Dickinson University
AZR Terceira Island, Azores Portugal 38.766 -27.375 19.0 -1 hours Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica
BAL* Baltic Sea Poland 55.350 17.220 3.0 +1 hours Morski Instytut Rybacki
BAO Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, Colorado United States 40.050 -105.004 1584.0 -7 hours Private Party; ESRL Physical Sciences Division; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
BHD Baring Head Station New Zealand -41.408 174.871 80.0 +12 hours National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
BKT Bukit Kototabang Indonesia -0.202 100.318 845.0 +7 hours Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics
BME* St. Davids Head, Bermuda United Kingdom 32.368 -64.648 12.0 -4 hours Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
BMW Tudor Hill, Bermuda United Kingdom 32.265 -64.879 30.0 -4 hours Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences
BRW Barrow, Alaska United States 71.323 -156.611 11.0 -9 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
BSC* Black Sea, Constanta Romania 44.178 28.665 0.0 +2 hours Romanian Marine Research Institute
CBA Cold Bay, Alaska United States 55.210 -162.720 21.3 -9 hours U.S. National Weather Service
CGO Cape Grim, Tasmania Australia -40.683 144.690 94.0 +10 hours CSIRO, Atmospheric Research
CHR Christmas Island Republic of Kiribati 1.700 -157.152 0.0 -10 hours Dive Kiribati
CIB Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera (CIBA) Spain 41.810 -4.930 845.0 +1 hours Centro de Investigacion de la Baja Atmosfera, Univ. of Valladolid
CMO* Cape Meares, Oregon United States 45.478 -123.969 30.0 -8 hours Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology
COS* Cosmos Peru -12.120 -75.330 4600.0 -5 hours Instituto Geofisico de Peru
CPT Cape Point South Africa -34.352 18.489 230.0 +2 hours South African Weather Service
CRV Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) United States 64.986 -147.598 611.4 -8 hours NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory; NOAA/NESDIS/OSPO/FCDAS
CRZ Crozet Island France -46.434 51.848 197.0 +5 hours Centre des Faibles Radioactivities/TAAF
DRP Drake Passage N/A -59.000 -64.690 0.0 -4 hours National Science Foundation
DSI Dongsha Island Taiwan 20.699 116.730 3.0 +8 hours National Central University, Taiwan
EIC Easter Island Chile -27.160 -109.428 47.0 -7 hours Direccion Meteorologica de Chile
FLK* Falkland Islands United Kingdom -51.700 -57.870 51.0 -5 hours British Meteorological Service
GLF* Conejo Mexico 18.720 -95.630 113.0 -6 hours Sistema Internacional de Monitoreo Ambiental
GMI Mariana Islands Guam 13.386 144.656 0.0 +10 hours University of Guam/Marine Laboratory
GOZ* Dwejra Point, Gozo Malta 36.048 14.889 1.0 +1 hours Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Environment
HBA Halley Station, Antarctica United Kingdom -75.605 -26.210 30.0 -2 hours British Antarctic Survey
HPB Hohenpeissenberg Germany 47.801 11.024 936.0 +1 hours Deutscher Wetterdienst
HSU Humboldt State University United States 41.059 -124.750 0.0 -8 hours Humbolt State University
HUN Hegyhatsal Hungary 46.950 16.650 248.0 +1 hours Hungarian Meteorological Service
ICE Storhofdi, Vestmannaeyjar Iceland 63.400 -20.288 118.0 +0 hours Icelandic Meteorological Office
INX INFLUX (Indianapolis Flux Experiment) United States 39.581 -86.421 250.0 -5 hours Purdue University
ITN* Grifton, North Carolina United States 35.365 -77.393 8.0 -5 hours WITN Television
IZO Izana, Tenerife, Canary Islands Spain 28.309 -16.499 2372.9 +0 hours Izana Observatory/Meteorological State Agency of Spain
KCO* Kaashidhoo Republic of Maldives 4.970 73.470 1.0 +5 hours University of California, San Diego (INDOEX)
KEY Key Biscayne, Florida United States 25.665 -80.158 1.0 -5 hours NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory
KPA* Kitt Peak, Arizona United States 32.000 -112.000 2083.0 -7 hours Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories
KUM Cape Kumukahi, Hawaii United States 19.520 -154.820 3.0 -10 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
KZD* Sary Taukum Kazakhstan 44.084 76.871 595.0 +6 hours Kazakh Scientific Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate
KZM* Plateau Assy Kazakhstan 43.250 77.880 2519.0 +6 hours Kazakh Scientific Institute of Environmental Monitoring and Climate
LEF Park Falls, Wisconsin United States 45.945 -90.273 472.0 -6 hours Wisconsin Educational Communications Board & US Forest Service; MBMAS; USDA Forest Service Forestry Sciences Laboratory; USDA Forest Service
LEW Lewisburg, Pennsylvania United States 40.945 -76.879 161.0 -5 hours Earth Networks, Inc.
LLB* Lac La Biche, Alberta Canada 54.950 -112.450 540.0 -7 hours Environment Canada
LLN Lulin Taiwan 23.470 120.870 2862.0 +8 hours Lulin Atmospheric Background Station
LMP Lampedusa Italy 35.520 12.620 45.0 +2 hours Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l’Energia e l’Ambiente
MBC* Mould Bay, Nunavut Canada 76.247 -119.353 30.0 -10 hours Environment Canada
MBO Mt. Bachelor Observatory United States 43.977 -121.686 2731.0 -8 hours University of Washington
MCM* McMurdo Station, Antarctica United States -77.830 166.600 11.0 +12 hours National Science Foundation
MEX High Altitude Global Climate Observation Center Mexico 18.984 -97.311 4464.0 -6 hours Sistema Internacional de Monitoreo Ambiental
MHD Mace Head, County Galway Ireland 53.326 -9.899 5.0 +0 hours National University of Ireland, Galway
MID Sand Island, Midway United States 28.210 -177.380 11.0 -11 hours U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
MKN* Mt. Kenya Kenya -0.062 37.297 3644.0 +3 hours Kenya Meteorological Department
MKO* Mauna Kea, Hawaii United States 19.830 -155.470 4220.0 -10 hours University of Hawaii/Institute for Astronomy
MLF* Mauna Loa, Hawaii United States 19.530 -155.580 3397.0 -10 hours
MLO Mauna Loa, Hawaii United States 19.536 -155.576 3397.0 -10 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
MVY* Marthas Vineyard, Massachusetts United States 41.330 -70.520 0.0 -5 hours Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
MWO Mt. Wilson Observatory United States 34.225 -118.059 1728.0 -8 hours UCLA Astrophysics/Solar Observatory
NAT Maxaranguape Brazil -5.515 -35.260 15.0 -3 hours Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, Il Centro de Química e Meio Ambiente, Divisao de Quimica Ambiental
NMB Gobabeb Namibia -23.580 15.030 456.0 +1 hours Gobabeb Training and Research Center
NWF* Niwot Ridge Forest, Colorado United States 40.030 -105.550 3050.0 -7 hours University of Colorado/INSTAAR
NWR Niwot Ridge, Colorado United States 40.053 -105.586 3523.0 -7 hours University of Colorado/INSTAAR
NZL* Kaitorete Spit New Zealand -43.830 172.630 3.0 +12 hours U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research
OPW* Olympic Peninsula, Washington United States 48.300 -124.628 486.0 -8 hours University of Washington
OXK Ochsenkopf Germany 50.030 11.808 1009.0 +1 hours Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
PAL Pallas-Sammaltunturi, GAW Station Finland 67.970 24.120 560.0 +2 hours Finnish Meteorological Institute
PCO* Pico, Azores Portugal 38.470 -28.400 2225.0 -1 hours
POCN00* Pacific Ocean (0 N) N/A 0.000 -155.000 10.0
POCN05* Pacific Ocean (5 N) N/A 5.000 -151.000 10.0
POCN10* Pacific Ocean (10 N) N/A 10.000 -149.000 10.0
POCN15* Pacific Ocean (15 N) N/A 15.000 -145.000 10.0
POCN20* Pacific Ocean (20 N) N/A 20.000 -141.000 10.0
POCN25* Pacific Ocean (25 N) N/A 25.000 -139.000 10.0
POCN30* Pacific Ocean (30 N) N/A 30.000 -135.000 10.0
POCN35* Pacific Ocean (35 N) N/A 35.000 -137.000 10.0
POCN40* Pacific Ocean (40 N) N/A 40.000 -136.000 10.0
POCN45* Pacific Ocean (45 N) N/A 45.000 -131.000 10.0
POCS05* Pacific Ocean (5 S) N/A -5.000 -159.000 10.0
POCS10* Pacific Ocean (10 S) N/A -10.000 -161.000 10.0
POCS15* Pacific Ocean (15 S) N/A -15.000 -171.000 10.0
POCS20* Pacific Ocean (20 S) N/A -20.000 -174.000 10.0
POCS25* Pacific Ocean (25 S) N/A -25.000 -171.000 10.0
POCS30* Pacific Ocean (30 S) N/A -30.000 -176.000 10.0
POCS35* Pacific Ocean (35 S) N/A -35.000 180.000 10.0
PSA Palmer Station, Antarctica United States -64.920 -64.000 10.0 -3 hours National Science Foundation
PSM* Point Six Mountain, Montana United States 47.030 -113.980 2462.0 -7 hours U.S. National Weather Service
PTA* Point Arena, California United States 38.955 -123.741 17.0 -8 hours Point Arena Lighthouse Keepers, Inc.
RPB Ragged Point Barbados 13.165 -59.432 15.0 -4 hours Private Party
SCSN03* South China Sea (3 N) N/A 3.000 105.000 15.0
SCSN06* South China Sea (6 N) N/A 6.000 107.000 15.0
SCSN09* South China Sea (9 N) N/A 9.000 109.000 15.0
SCSN12* South China Sea (12 N) N/A 12.000 111.000 15.0
SCSN15* South China Sea (15 N) N/A 15.000 113.000 15.0
SCSN18* South China Sea (18 N) N/A 18.000 113.500 15.0
SCSN21* South China Sea (21 N) N/A 21.000 114.000 15.0
SCT Beech Island, South Carolina United States 33.406 -81.833 115.2 -5 hours Savannah River National Laboratory, DOE; Savannah River National Laboratory and University of Georgia
SDZ Shangdianzi Peoples Republic of China 40.650 117.117 293.0 +8 hours Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) and Beijing Meteorological Bureau (BMB), China Meteorological Administration (CMA)
SEY Mahe Island Seychelles -4.682 55.532 2.0 +4 hours Seychelles Bureau of Standards
SGI* Bird Island, South Georgia United Kingdom -54.000 -38.050 30.0 -3 hours British Antarctic Survey
SGP Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma United States 36.607 -97.489 314.0 -6 hours Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
SHM Shemya Island, Alaska United States 52.711 174.126 23.0 -10 hours Chugach McKinley
SIO* La Jolla, California United States 32.830 -117.270 14.0 -8 hours Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO)
SMO Tutuila American Samoa -14.247 -170.564 42.0 -11 hours NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
SPO South Pole, Antarctica United States -89.980 -24.800 2810.0 +12 hours National Science Foundation
STC* Ocean Station C United States 54.000 -35.000 6.0 U.S. National Weather Service
STM* Ocean Station M Norway 66.000 2.000 0.0 +0 hours Norway Meteorological Institute
STR Sutro Tower, San Francisco, California United States 37.755 -122.452 254.0 -8 hours Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
SUM Summit Greenland 72.596 -38.422 3209.5 -2 hours National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs
SYO Syowa Station, Antarctica Japan -69.013 39.590 14.0 +3 hours National Institute of Polar Research
TAC Tacolneston United Kingdom 52.518 1.139 56.0 +0 hours University of Bristol
TAP Tae-ahn Peninsula Republic of Korea 36.738 126.133 16.0 +9 hours Korea-China Centre for Atmospheric Research
TDF Tierra Del Fuego, Ushuaia Argentina -54.848 -68.311 12.0 -4 hours Servicio Meteorologico Nacional
THD Trinidad Head, California United States 41.054 -124.151 107.0 -8 hours Scientific Aviation, Inc; NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division
TIK Hydrometeorological Observatory of Tiksi Russia 71.597 128.889 31.0
UTA Wendover, Utah United States 39.902 -113.718 1327.0 -7 hours U.S. National Weather Service
UUM Ulaan Uul Mongolia 44.452 111.096 1007.0 +8 hours Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Institute
WBI West Branch, Iowa United States 41.725 -91.353 241.7 -6 hours M & M Aviation Services, Ltd.; University of Iowa
WGC Walnut Grove, California United States 38.265 -121.491 0.0 -8 hours Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; DOE Environmental Energy Technologies Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; KalScott Engineering
WIS WIS Station, Negev Desert Israel 30.860 34.781 477.0 +2 hours Weizmann Institute of Science
WKT Moody, Texas United States 31.315 -97.327 251.0 -6 hours Blackland Research and Extension Center-Texas Agricultural Experiment Station; Pinnacle Towers Inc.
WLG Mt. Waliguan Peoples Republic of China 36.288 100.896 3810.0 +8 hours Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) and Qinghai Meteorological Bureau (QMB), China Meteorological Administration (CMA)
WPCN00 Western Pacific Cruise (0 N) N/A 0.000 151.100 0.0
WPCN05 Western Pacific Cruise (5 N) N/A 5.000 149.100 0.0
WPCN10 Western Pacific Cruise (10 N) N/A 10.000 148.000 0.0
WPCN15 Western Pacific Cruise (15 N) N/A 15.000 145.000 0.0
WPCN20 Western Pacific Cruise (20 N) N/A 20.000 142.000 0.0
WPCN25 Western Pacific Cruise (25 N) N/A 25.000 140.000 0.0
WPCN30 Western Pacific Cruise (30 N) N/A 30.000 136.800 0.0
WPCS05 Western Pacific Cruise (5 S) N/A -5.000 153.700 0.0
WPCS10 Western Pacific Cruise (10 S) N/A -10.000 156.800 0.0
WPCS15 Western Pacific Cruise (15 S) N/A -15.000 159.300 0.0
WPCS20 Western Pacific Cruise (20 S) N/A -20.000 161.100 0.0
WPCS25 Western Pacific Cruise (25 S) N/A -25.000 165.500 0.0
WPCS30 Western Pacific Cruise (30 S) N/A -30.000 168.000 0.0
ZEP Ny-Alesund, Svalbard Norway and Sweden 78.907 11.889 474.0 +1 hours Zeppelin Station/University of Stockholm Meteorological Institute
* - Indicates discontinued site or project