THE NOAA ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS INDEX (AGGI)Updated Spring 2014
The AGGI is a measure of the warming influence of long-lived trace gases and how that influence is changing each year. The index was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The warming influence of long-lived greenhouse gases is well understood by scientists and has been reported by NOAA through a range of national and international assessments. Nevertheless, the language of scientists often eludes policy makers, educators, and the general public. This index is designed to help bridge that gap. The AGGI provides a way for this warming influence to be presented as a simple index.
Increases in the abundance of atmospheric greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution are mainly the result of human activity and are largely responsible for the observed increases in global temperature [IPCC 2007]. However, climate projections have model uncertainties that overwhelm the uncertainties in greenhouse gas measurements. We present here an index that is directly proportional to the direct warming influence (also know as climate forcing) supplied from these gases. Because it is based on the observed amounts of long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, this index contains relatively little uncertainty.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate forcing as “An externally imposed perturbation in the radiative energy budget of the Earth climate system, e.g. through changes in solar radiation, changes in the Earth albedo, or changes in atmospheric gases and aerosol particles.” Thus climate forcing is a “change” in the status quo. IPCC takes the pre-industrial era (chosen as the year 1750) as the baseline. The perturbation to direct climate forcing (also termed “radiative forcing”) that has the largest magnitude and the least scientific uncertainty is the forcing related to changes in long-lived, well mixed greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and halogenated compounds (mainly CFCs).
Atmospheric global greenhouse gas abundances are used to calculate changes in radiative forcing for the period beginning in 1979 when NOAA's global air sampling network expanded significantly. The change in annual average total radiative forcing by all the long-lived greenhouse gases since the pre-industrial era (1750) is also used to define the NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), which was introduced in 2004 [Hofmann et al., 2006a] and has been updated annually since.
The NOAA monitoring program provides high-precision measurements of the global abundance and distribution of long-lived greenhouse gases that are used to calculate changes in radiative climate forcing.
Air samples are collected through the NOAA/ESRL global air sampling network, including a cooperative program for the carbon gases which provides samples from ~80 global clean air sites, including measurements at 5 degree latitude intervals from ship routes (see Figure 1).
Weekly data are used to create a smoothed north-south latitude profile from which a global average is calculated (Figure 2). The growth rate of CO2 has averaged about 1.73 ppm per year over the past 35 years (1979-2013). The CO2 growth rate has increased over this period, averaging about 1.4 ppm per year before 1995 and 2.0 ppm per year thereafter. The growth rate of methane declined from 1983 until 1999, consistent with an approach to steady-state. Superimposed on this decline is significant interannual variability in growth rates [Dlugokencky et al., 1998, 2003]. The approach to steady-state may have been accelerated by the economic collapse of the former Soviet Union and decreased emissions from the fossil fuel sector. From 1999 to 2006, the CH4 burden was about constant, but since 2007, globally averaged CH4 has begun increasing again. Causes for the recent increases include warm temperatures in the Arctic in 2007 and increased precipitation in the tropics in 2007 and 2008 [Dlugokencky et al., 2009]. Nitrous oxide continues to increase at a relatively uniform growth rate, while radiative forcing from the sum of observed CFC changes ceased increasing in about 2000 and is now declining [Montzka et al., 2011]. The latter is a response to decreased emissions related to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer.
Radiative Forcing Calculations
To determine the total radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases, we have used IPCC [IPCC 2001] recommended expressions to convert greenhouse gas changes, relative to 1750, to instantaneous radiative forcing (see Table 1). These empirical expressions are derived from atmospheric radiative transfer models and generally have an uncertainty of about 10%. The uncertainties in the global average abundances of the long-lived greenhouse gases are much smaller (<1%).
|Trace Gas||Simplified Expression
Radiative Forcing, ΔF (Wm-2)
|CO2||ΔF = αln(C/Co)||α = 5.35|
|CH4||ΔF = β(M½ - Mo½) - [f(M,No) - f(Mo,No)]||β = 0.036|
|N2O||ΔF = ε(N½ - No½) - [f(Mo,N) - f(Mo,No)]||ε = 0.12|
|CFC-11||ΔF = λ(X - Xo)||λ = 0.25|
|CFC-12||ΔF = ω(X - Xo)||ω = 0.32|
The subscript "o" denotes the unperturbed (1750) abundance
f(M,N) = 0.47ln[1 + 2.01x10-5 (MN)0.75 +
C is CO2 in ppm, M is CH4 in ppb
Co = 278 ppm, Mo = 700 ppb, No = 270 ppb, Xo = 0
Because we seek an index that is accurate, only the direct forcing has been included. Model-dependent feedbacks, for example, due to water vapor and ozone depletion, are not included. Other spatially heterogeneous, short-lived, climate forcing agents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have uncertain global magnitudes and also are not included here to maintain accuracy. Figure 3 shows the results for carbon dioxide global monthly averages for the period 1979-2013. An index based on the total of these contributions to radiative forcing would be similar to the Consumer Price Index, for example. It would include all the important components but not all the components of climate forcing. In contrast to climate model calculations, the results reported here are based mainly on measurements of long-lived, well mixed gases and have small uncertainties.
Figure 4 shows radiative forcing for the major gases and a set of 15 minor long-lived halogenated gases (CFC-113, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFCs 22, 141b and 142b, HFCs 134a, 152a, 23, 143a, and 125, SF6, and halons 1211, 1301 and 2402). Except for the HFCs and SF6, which do not contain chlorine or bromine, these gases are also ozone-depleting gases and are regulated by the Montreal Protocol. As expected, CO2 dominates the total forcing with methane and the CFCs becoming relatively smaller contributors to the total forcing over time. The five major greenhouse gases account for about 96% of the direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gas increases since 1750. The remaining 4% is contributed by the 15 minor halogenated gases.
Of the five long-lived greenhouse gases that contribute 96% to radiative climate forcing, CO2 and N2O are the only ones that continue to increase at a regular rate. Radiative forcing from CH4 increased from 2007 to 2013 after remaining nearly constant from 1999 to 2006. While the radiative forcing of the long-lived, well-mixed greenhouse gases increased 34% from 1990 to 2013 (by ~0.74 watts m-2), CO2 has accounted for nearly 80% of this increase (~0.59 watts m-2). Had the ozone-depleting gases not been regulated by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments, it is estimated that climate forcing would have been as much as 0.3 watt m-2 higher in 2010 [Velders et al., 2007], or more than half of the increase in radiative forcing due to CO2 alone since 1990.
An Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) has been defined as the ratio of the total direct radiative forcing due to long-lived greenhouse gases for any year for which adequate global measurements exist to that which was present in 1990. 1990 was chosen because it is the baseline year for the Kyoto Protocol. This index, shown with the direct radiative forcing values in Table 2 and on the right-hand axis of Figure 4, is a measure of the interannual changes in conditions that affect carbon dioxide emission and uptake, methane and nitrous oxide sources and sinks, the decline in the atmospheric abundance of ozone-depleting chemicals related to the Montreal Protocol. and the increase in their substitutes (HCFCs and HFCs). Most of this increase is related to CO2. For 2013, the AGGI was 1.34 (representing an increase in total direct radiative forcing of 34% since 1990). The increase in CO2 forcing alone since 1990 was about 46% (see Fig. 3). The decline in the CFCs has tempered the increase in net radiative forcing considerably. The AGGI will be updated each year when air samples from all over the globe for the previous year have been obtained and analyzed.
Changes in radiative forcing before 1978 are derived from atmospheric measurements of CO2, started by C.D. Keeling [Keeling et al., 1958], and from measurements of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in air trapped in snow and ice in Antarctica and Greenland [Etheridge et al., 1996, 1998; Butler et al,, 1999]. These results define atmospheric composition changes going back to 1750 and radiative forcing changes since preindustrial times (Figure 5). This longer-term view shows how increases in greenhouse gas concentrations over the past 60 years (since 1950) have accounted for three-fourths (75%) of the total increase in the AGGI over the past 260 years.
|Global Radiative Forcing (W m-2)||CO2-eq
|Year||CO2||CH4||N2O||CFC12||CFC11||15-minor||Total||Total||1990 = 1||% change|
- Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P.P. Tans, J.H. Butler, J.W. Elkins, J.T. Ellis, T. Conway, N. Zhang, P. Lang, and A.D. Clarke, (1996) Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole, Nature, 383, 231-235.
- Butler, J.H., M. Battle, M. Bender, S.A. Montzka, A.D. Clarke, E.S. Saltzman, C. Sucher, J. Severinghaus, J.W. Elkins, (1999), A twentieth century record of atmospheric halocarbons in polar firn air, Nature, 399, 749-755.
- Dlugokencky, E. J., K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, and P. P. Tans, (1998) Continuing decline in the growth rate of the atmospheric methane burden, Nature, 393, 447-450.
- Dlugokencky, E. J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, (2003), Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19, doi:10.1029/2003GL018126.
- Dlugokencky, E.J., R.C. Myers, P.M. Lang, K.A. Masarie, A.M. Crotwell, K.W. Thoning, B.D. Hall, J.W. Elkins, and L.P Steele, (2005), Conversion of NOAA atmospheric dry air CH4 mole fractions to a gravimetrically-prepared standard scale, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18306, doi:10.1029/2005JD006035.
- Dlugokencky, E.J., L. Bruhwiler, J.W.C. White, L.K. Emmons, P.C. Novelli, S.A. Montzka, K.A. Masarie, P.M. Lang, A.M. Crotwell1, J.B. Miller, and L.V. Gatti, (2009), Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18803, doi:10.1029/2009GL039780
- Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, and R.J. Francey, (1996), Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 4115–4128.
- Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and R.L. Langenfelds, (1998), Atmospheric methane between 1000 A.D. and present: Evidence of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability, J. Geophys. Res, *103*, 15,979-15,993.
- Hofmann, D. J., J. H. Butler, E. J. Dlugokencky, J. W. Elkins, K. Masarie, S. A. Montzka, and P. Tans, (2006a), The role of carbon dioxide in climate forcing from 1979 - 2004: Introduction of the Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, Tellus B, 58B, 614-619.
- Keeling, C.D., (1958), The concentration and isotopic abundances of atmospheric carbon dioxide in rural areas, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 13, 322–334.
- Machida, T., T. Nakazawa, Y. Fujii, S. Aoki, and O. Watanabe, (1995), Increase in the atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration during the last 250 years, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2921-2924.
- Montzka, S. A., E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, (2011), Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change, Nature, 476, 43-50.
- IPCC, (2001), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK and New York, NY USA.
- IPCC, (2007), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge UK and New York, NY USA.
- Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. McFarland, (2007), The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences 104, 4814-4819.