Twenty Questions and Answers About the Ozone Layer: 2010 Update
Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010
World Meteorological Organization Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 52
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
United Nations Environment Programme
World Meteorological Organization
Additional Topics: Understanding Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Our understanding of stratospheric ozone depletion has been obtained through a combination of laboratory studies, computer models, and atmospheric observations. The wide variety of chemical reactions that occur in the stratosphere have been discovered and studied in laboratory studies. Chemical reactions between two gases follow well-defined physical rules. Some of these reactions occur on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) formed in the winter stratosphere. Reactions have been studied that involve many different molecules containing chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine and other atmospheric constituents such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. These studies have shown that several reactions involving chlorine and bromine directly or indirectly destroy ozone in the stratosphere.
Computer models have been used to examine the combined effect of the large group of known reactions that occur in the stratosphere. These models simulate the stratosphere by including representative chemical abundances, winds, air temperatures, and the daily and seasonal changes in sunlight. These analyses show that under certain conditions chlorine and bromine react in catalytic cycles in which one chlorine or bromine atom destroys many thousands of ozone molecules. Models are also used to simulate ozone amounts observed in previous years as a strong test of our understanding of atmospheric processes and to evaluate the importance of new reactions found in laboratory studies. The responses of ozone to possible future changes in the abundances of trace gases, temperatures, and other atmospheric parameters have been extensively explored with specialized computer models (see Q20: How is ozone expected to change in the coming decades? ).
Atmospheric observations have shown what gases are present in different regions of the stratosphere and how their abundances vary. Gas and particle abundances have been monitored over time periods spanning a daily cycle to decades. Observations show that halogen source gases and reactive halogen gases are present in the stratosphere at the amounts required to cause observed ozone depletion. Ozone and chlorine monoxide (ClO), for example, have been observed extensively with a variety of instruments. ClO is a highly reactive gas that is involved in catalytic ozone destruction cycles throughout the stratosphere (see Q9: What are the chlorine and bromine reactions that destroy stratospheric ozone? ). Instruments on the ground and on satellites, balloons, and aircraft now routinely detect ozone and ClO remotely using optical and microwave signals. High-altitude aircraft and balloon instruments are also used to detect both gases locally in the stratosphere (see Q5: How is ozone measured in the atmosphere? ). The observations of ozone and reactive gases made in past decades are used extensively in comparisons with computer models in order to increase confidence in our understanding of stratospheric ozone depletion.